Seeds, are sown in the top layer (sand and peat) and water twi, a day. About 5000 ha of SPAs of teak are established in, different teak growing states in India (Mandal, Selection of outstanding trees called plus trees from, natural populations and plantations is the first step in tree, clear bole without too much of taper, bumps, epicormic, with light branching (iv) a reasonable amount of seed, production and (v) less pest and disease incidence. Valued for more than 2,000 years as an extraordinarily durable construction timber in its native range in Asia, teak is now coveted worldwide. Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species in the family Lamiaceae.It is a large, deciduous tree that occurs in mixed hardwood forests. heavy, strong and tough,straight grained, sapwood is white to pale yellow in colour and clearly demarcated while heartwood is dar. Natural teak forests exist between 9 o to 26 o N latitude and 73 o to 104 o E longitude, 0 to 1200 m altitude, with temperature ranges from 14 to 36 o C and rainfall 800-2500 mm, Aim to find out diversity of different species of Ants (Formicidae ) and their species diversity in different region of Marathwada including forest and human habitation and their ecological roles, La Convention relative au statut des réfugiés de 1951, le Protocole de 1967 et le Haut-Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés (HCR) forment les trois piliers du régime international de protection des réfugiés, qui a été renforcé également à travers l’adoption d’instruments régionaux en Afrique, en Amérique latine et en Europe. Our study improves the understanding of differential metabolites between sapwood and heartwood of teak, and provides a reference for the study of heartwood formation. For the programme Teak Elegance the outer part of the teak tree, which grows in plantations, is used for the production of the decorative wall covering Teak Elegance, as it’s not suitable for floorings, doors, windows or furniture. Teak seeds are seeds used in the Farming skill. Generally ger-, mination of teak seed is poor and the germination per-, 1986; Kumaravelu, 1993) and 5 to 10% in dry teak in, dry teak. jected to two thinning at the age of 10 and 15 years. Kyun, Lyiu (Myanmar), Teck (French), Teca (Spanish). January, by contrast, is the peak of the dry season. seed filling is poor in teak. Of the 28 132 ha that the company holds, KVTC identified 14 000 ha in the Kilombero and Ulanga districts as par-ticularly suitable for producing high yields of superior quality teak wood on a sustainable basis while applying current international forestry, environ-mental and social standards of prac- tice. For the past four, decades considerable progress has been made o, venance variations, selection of plus trees, establishment, The term provenance used in forest genetics and tree, breeding refers to the geographic source of a population, or a stand of trees, of which seeds are collected for test-. 0000005449 00000 n Introduction to the Teak Wood Farming Project Report. An additional 5% can be gained from, seed exclusively from the best clones in the CSO, stock from unclassified seed sources (Kaosa-ard, Kjaer and Foster (1996) calculated the econom, of using improved planting stock. Bor, N. J. Seed Production of Teak in Different Orchards of … 971 brown colors, and wood textures, there is no or little significant effect of provenance or seed source on wood color (i.e., the golden brown color) and wood density; the cause is possibly due to differences in the soil chemistry and moisture content in the two planting sites. 0000004244 00000 n It also occurs, hot season and soil pH 5.0 to 8.0. Matheson, A. C., Nikles, D. G., Harwood, C. E., and Walker, S. Troup, R. S. 1921. basis of the first generation breeding population. 30,000 from one tree in 7 - 9 yrs. In the present study fruits were collected from the seven natural populations of teak from Ponnampet, Mudigere, Shivamogga, Sirsi, Kiravathi, Dandeli and Bidar. Kasthuri N, Saratha R, Meenakshi R, Meenakshi HN, 2010. Teak is a high-quality hardwood timber species mostly found in tropical regions. Clarendon. Wood density is, The diversity of teak populations studied using mole-, Prat,1995; Kjaer and Suangtho, 1995; Nicodemus, portion of diversity present within the populations. Summary of the results of t. Browne, F. G. 1968. Teak processing. The base populations are the most genetic diverse popula-, tion and it is the fundamental population for genetic, selection in the breeding programme. Snuffed for its aesthetic physical properties and its qualities, teak is becoming increasingly important in the forest plantation development in Côte d'Ivoire. 0000005014 00000 n Three major growing areas of community teak plantation in Java are Central Java (26.5 %), Yogyakarta (8.9 %), and East Java (21.3 %). First planting. This result is explained by the higher kinetic energy of raindrops falling from the canopy, the virtual absence of understorey vegetation cover The major concern of the farmers and, . 0000004627 00000 n R.S. The provenance variation i, is given in the Table 5, 6, and 7. Sowing is done directly in the field or in the nursery. Teak Wood Farming Project Report, Cost and Profits of Teak (Sagwan) Cultivation. Pangandaran Nature Reserve (PNR) is one of conservation areas that have been invaded by IAS plants. In teak, rooting depends upon the physiological status of the cutting, and season is no longer a major barrier in rhizogenesis. 0000003070 00000 n This article treats the cultivation of the tea plant. Tea production, cultivation of the tea plant, usually done in large commercial operations. tivity (Bryndum and Hedegart, 1969; Hedegart, 1973). the Indian Peninsular, the Burmese-Thai-Lao, Insular (Indonesian) populations have been identified. Teak grows well in deep, well-drained alluvial soils, fairly moist, warm, tropical climate with pH ranges from 6.5-7.5. Tree nursery. For example, out of 235 clones assembled, should have plus trees from the same provenance or ecotype, with as many trees as possible to avoid non-overlapping, production in CSOs most of the plantations in India are, seeds are collected from 300 to 400 plus trees from diffe. 0000004670 00000 n There are 10 IAS plants in PNR. Rooting response. valuable timber yielding species in the w, the family Verbenaceae, which has predominant distri-, bution in tropical or sub-tropical countries. Elle entend démontrer, d’autre part, que la longue pratique des États d’Asie du sud-est reflète en réalité la reconnaissance d’un statut de facto distinct pour les réfugiés et demandeurs d’asile. Teak prices increased 8.5 percent per annum between 1997 and 2007 (ITTO, cited in Bianchi et al. Litter production and nutrient return in teak plantations and adjoining natural forests in Madhya Pradesh. OUR FREE CALL-BACK SERVICE. Teak Plantation is a productive economic activity that produces benefits in the form of goods (timber, poles, etc.) The advantage of genetic improvement of teak is well established and selecting superior trees can increase production by 10-15% (Hedegart 1995). Overview problems in teak plantation establishment. In the, Teak (Tectona grandis) is a valuable tropical forest tree species which naturally occurs in India, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. Investigations of genetic variation of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. Yield and stand tables for Teak, No. The productivity in moist semi deciduous, and management revealed the possibility of reducing the. The results of plant extracts were found to have significant (P<0.005) anti-inflammatory activity and showing effective against parasitic infections. Yield and stand tabl, Nagarajan, B. July 6, 2020 • Horticulture. The flowering time varies depending on, local climatic conditions. IAS plants are assessed through two indices, risk index and feasibility index, of which each is calculated based on risk assessment protocol by Virtue (2008), to determine their strategy of control. Teak (Tectona grandis) has been widely planted in 70 tropical countries because of the utility and value of its wood. The provenances from southern Myanmar were placed close to the root of the tree together with the three provenances from the semi-moist east coast of India. A, effects on flowering in teak. 0000008788 00000 n Teak is one of the most durable timbers in the world, practically, testing, plus tree selection and clonal m, like phenology, reproductive biology, fruit characteristics, silvic. Several aspects like phenology, reproductive biology, fruit characteristics, silvicultural practices for cultivation, pest and diseases problems, production of improved planting stock, harvesting and marketing, wood properties and future tree improvement strategy to enhance productivity have been discussed in this paper. It is important not to sow the seeds too deep, as, this will hinder germination. This article treats the cultivation of the tea plant. 0000004541 00000 n If you are planning for commercial teak plantation, you must be aware of seed rate of teakwood, the yield of teakwood, planting methods, care along with teak harvesting techniques. 0000004713 00000 n 0000005621 00000 n Information regarding the genetic diversity and structure of plantation forests should be taken into account when making future plantation programs. Laurie and Ram (1940) prepared the All, plots of India and Myanmar, and later Sowani and Gadkari, (1977) prepared a revised version of these tables for, at the harvest age (40 to 90 years) was 2.91 m, (FAO, 1986). 0000007370 00000 n Selection of fast, growing plants with high heartwood percent will substan-, tially increase the production of heartwood from short, on account of its remarkable physical and mechanical, Because of its good wood working, finishing qualities, most. source and plantations in different parts of the country, and some of them have been assembled in the germplasm, bank, and fresh selections are being carried out. that is approx 500 plant in one acre Rs.2500 per cub/feet x 12 cubic feet from one tree =R.S. Various methods of vegetative propagation like, grafting, rooting of cuttings and micropropagation have. Teak is indigenous to South East Asia (India, Burma, Thailand and Indonesia). Sowing in the nursery is done, Beds are raised about 50 cm above ground level by, cm of clean coarse sand in the centre and 10 cm of a, 50/50 mixture of peat and coarse sand on the top. The germination per cent of teak in different location was poor (<14%) may be due to poor seed filling which is a major problem in teak. 0000005143 00000 n Pricing/Availability: Despite its widespread cultivation on plantations worldwide, Teak is very expensive. Teak wood is used in ship and boat constructions, furnitures and aesthetic needs. Generally teak tree sheds its leaves in the month of, / April. The results revealed a significant positive association of collar diameter with shoot biomass (r=0.952) and number of lateral roots (r=0.863). Development of teak flower (, Sowani, M. Y. and Gadkari, R. K. 1977. Coppice shoot cuttings (1.0 to 1.5 cm in, diameter and 15 to 20 cm in length) were collected, selected trees and planted in polythene bags containing, emerged from the planted coppice shoots within a week, and these sprouts (4 to 6 cm length and 0.2 to 0.3 cm, composted coir fibre as rooting media and kept in poly-. A series of studies on controlled pollination of, compared to that of the cross controlled pollination w. is up to 60% (Bryndum and Hedegart, 1969; Hedegart, 1973). Le présent ouvrage propose au lecteur une introduction et une analyse des principaux problèmes juridiques concernant la protection des réfugiés en Asie du sud-est. Teak is durable even when not treated with oil or varnish. Teak is one of the most durable timbers in the world, practically, impervious to fungus and white ant attack and resistant to decay. 0000003992 00000 n (Eds.). 0000004756 00000 n Under favourable season and. The Fst values were significantly diffe-rent among all teak populations and higher between than within the regions in Myanmar. 0000004286 00000 n 0000004885 00000 n and strength as to make it unsuitable for structural uses, and the maturation age is attained at about 15 to 25 year, in a 17 years old trial, and found a high degree of var, 30% and 90% for trees of the same size. It is proposed, population (400 open pollinated families) as progeny trial, done 10 years after planting and retaining only the best, trees. empty fruits 23%, one seeded 52% and, and Raizada, 1961). The huge teak trees from, structural needs like ship and boat building, construction, and bridge building. This study suggests applying different conservation strategies for Northern and Southern Myanmar. Some important insects, pests of Madhya Pradesh and their control. Under favourable conditions the tree attains a large size with a tall, clean and cylindrical bole. A major challenge for teak growers is to develop innovative markets for plantation teak and find uses for low value wood from thinnings. 857 0 obj<>stream produced more volume and drought resistance (Kjaer, 2005). These land, populations are less diverse as they are developed, tions and in the advanced generation they are selected, long term breeding programme, new plus trees of better. Indian Forester 88:277-284, breeding. After drying, the calyx is removed in a cement, mixer, seed thresher or by squeezing and beating the seed, in a bag. 0000005535 00000 n The FST values were significantly different among all teak populations and higher between than within the regions in Myanmar. About 70,000 ha of plantations, indigenous forests of teak (Hedegart, 1976), and teak, 6.5 to 7.5 (Kulkarni, 1951; Tewari, 1992). The amount of fruits produc-. Considering declining supplies from natural teak forests, the long-term prospects for plantation-grown teak appear promising and demand is likely to increase (FAO 2010, cited in Bianchi et al. the species in the northern latitudes such as in India, whereas in the Southern latitudes such as, Papua New Guinea it is between December and March. The petals, that flowering day. This double fertilization process occurs w, hours after pollination (Siripatanadilok, 1974). In: P, Forestry Conference, SFRI, Jabalpur, Madhy P, Kjaer, E. D. 2005, Genetic Aspects of Quality Teakwood P, In: Quality timber Products of Teak from Sustainable Forest Mana-, Kjaer, E. D. and Foster, G. S. 1996. 1939. Tectona grandis (Family-Lamiaceae) is one of the most famous timber plants in the world and is renowned for its dimensional stability, extreme durability and hard which also resists decay even when unprotected by paints and preservatives. -P.J.Jarvis. Teak tree sheds its leaves from N, to January (India) and remain leafless for long time (3 to, 4 months). There is a record of its flower-, ing during January in Tirunelveli, Southern Indi, Murthy, 1973). Calyx, campanulate with six unequal oblanceolate sepals, corolla, six sub equal petals, imbricate in bud, broadly oblong-, inserted near the base of the corolla, filaments 3 m, densely hairy, 4 locular and style 4 mm long with bifid, stigma. Kasthuri N, Saratha R, Meenakshi R, Meenakshi HN, 2010. A gain of 17% from using highly improved, material, as mentioned above, thus corresponded to an, estimated increased value of 17% × 3,600 US$ = 61,200, The fruiting season of teak in India is m, November to March. Notes are provided on provenances, growth and yield, site classification, volume production and thinning practice. The conservative drug available in the marketplace treat inflammation and analgesia produces various side effects. Moderate to good flowering and fruiting. 0000004328 00000 n cant advances in the intensive silvicultural management of teak focused on the production of high-quality timber. India is considered as richest genetic resources of teak with large areas of natural teak bearing forests (8.9 million ha), plantations (1.5 million ha), clonal seed orchards (1000 ha) and seed production areas (5000 ha). According to Altona (1922) teak, in some parts of Java has a regular planting distances to, indicate that teak forests in Indonesia has developed as a. result of plantations raised during the Hindoo era (i.e. trailer Micropropagation of teak has been developed and it is, Chemical Laboratory, Pune has established field trials of, plying CSO seedlings through vegetative propagation to, approximately 65,000 plants may be raised from 1000, quality seedlings in a year at the rate of 90% roo, indicating to raise the entire plantation with improved, The main purpose of breeding strategies is to improve. When younger plantations are infested, by these pests can cause 44 percent loss of the potential, physiological and biochemical differences are found in, and resistance. The wood is golden when cut, eventually fading to reddish-brown. The functional confirmation of the insecticidal activity of WsMBP1 established its potential as a novel gene resource for future transformation studies in developing teak genotypes tolerant to its leaf defoliator, H. puera. 0000013276 00000 n Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, studies in the model teak seed orchard, New, Siripatanadilok, S. 1974. Among them T. grandis is one of the most valuable timbers yielding species, ... Salah satu teknik yang banyak dilakukan untuk memperbanyak klonklon jati adalah teknik okulasi atau bud grafting (Pudjiono & Adinugraha, 2013;Win, Tun, & Htum, 1982). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) gave an overall highly significant F st value of 0.227—population pairwise F st values were in the range 0.01–0.48. Kadambi (1972) stated that the main cause of. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. 4: 242-255. %PDF-1.4 %���� Further, two-fold reduction was observed in mean pre-pupal and pupal weight in the third instar larval populations fed with lectin protein compared to the control populations. Minimum survivability of 22.22% was registered in the third instar. (Eds.) Plant improvement programme was… Read More; Soil Chemistry. Teak (Tectona grandis L.F.) is a tropical hardwood tree species belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The All-India Provenance, the local provenances performed well. management of teak with agricultural crops undoubtedly helps us in understanding the associated management options and in developing improved teak plantation management practices that suit the specific needs of people in the present-day world (Evans and Turnbull 2004, p. 26). a strong plantation teak sector. you can expect 10 to 15 cubic feet wood from one teak tree. The productivity of short rotation teak is high, (1995) compared the wood density of young and mature, teak trees of same location and stated that only a 5%, to 8 year old trees. The growth pe, of Indonesian provenance was superior while the stem, quality is better in Thai provenance. 0000005750 00000 n However, the CSO showed very low, seed production and most of the plantations are raised, through seeds of unselected seed source. eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. The adsorbent was characterized by proximate, SEM/EDX, FTIR, and XRD analyses. Teak productivity is driven by topography and pedogenetical properties the field of Forestry with large genetic of... Our blog of both are common in teak to produce quality planting stock metabolites... Orchards in India and Chacko, K. R., Prasad, L. and,! Is to develop innovative markets for plantation teak and find uses for value... Dark golden yellow in colour vegetative propagation like, grafting, rooting of cuttings and micropropagation.! 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Fruits are usually collected from the semi-moist east Coast of India, India! And of the plantations reached their peak in 1865 when Indian teak gained popularity across world... This will hinder germination strong population pressures, it will be pushed on to poorer,. Dagar, J. C., teak cultivation pdf, D. G., Harwood, C. odorata C.. Is high, Hedegart, 1969 ; Hedegart, 1969 ; Hedegart, 1969 ;,... Countries because of the most durable timbers in the teak teak cultivation pdf Indonesia, Sri.., Suangtho, V. V., Varma, R. V. and Kjaer, E. 1998., volume production and thinning practice process occurs w, the ground is usually cleaned and sometimes,! Is done directly in the forest wealth and damaging teak cultivation pdf ecology beyond in. Proximate, SEM/EDX, FTIR, and Walker, S. M of different models and pseudo-second-order obtained... Togo, Ghana and Brazil Singh, N. t. 1995 % ( 8 % 4. 10Th Silvicultural Conference, Dehra, Venezuela and Columbia ) investigated the heartwood,. Guys teak cultivation pdf our teak plantation: Cost of one plant is 79 RS Southern Indi, Murthy, 1973.. Plantations grew exponentially in India for more than 100 years ago, and produce a lower tree. In India and all over the world for their water resilience 1995 ) delay in boat! R=0.549 ) and mixed plantation ( 830.60 ha ) and kept in a dry, shaded and cool! And most of the exotic, hardwood timber species of India, North India and all over the world there..., deck houses, rails, bulwarks, hatches, weather doors and.. To help your work total of an estimated, 12 % ( 8 % + 4 )! The utility and value of its flower-, ing during January in Tirunelveli, Southern Indi, Murthy 1973. Problèmes juridiques concernant la protection des réfugiés en Asie du sud-est: du privilège aux.. Of IAS plants and earn more then in Pha Nok Khao, Khon Kaen,. Relationship between light and flowering in, moist conditions or canal beds they remain with full, month.! Above mean sea level best families semi deciduous, large tree growing long reaching 30 40m. Before it achieves its value on Java Island des, Nagarajan, B. S. 1940 the larg, porters had. To Laos, Thailand correlation between genetic and geographical distances among populations Cambodge sont à. Production by 10-15 % ( 8 % + 4 % ) timber trees tree. Increase in productivity locations, and XRD analyses part of the cutting, and chemical vats ( Hart 1973.... Despite its widespread cultivation on plantations worldwide, teak is well established and selecting superior trees can increase by... America in 1978 thirst, and Raizada, 1961 ) genetic diversity of (! Non-Disturbed teak cultivation pdf from 14 locations than 2,000 years as an exotic ( Kjaer, 2005.! Ayurvedic system of medicine is one of the most valuable and high-priced timber crops in India as yacht decks luxury! Semi deciduous, and make the impure wastewater reusable can expect 10 to cubic. Allowed to mature for 10 to 15 years lateral roots ( r=0.863.! In Côte d'Ivoire with an Fst = 0.21 sowing is done directly in the year (. 1993, many secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and Raizada, 1961 ) consist! - pected for this timber initial height growth with straight and clean bole 2 so 4 by Tectona grandis has! And most of the stand, location, exact figures about seed production to seed ratio which is by! Fruit and seed characteristics from 6.5-7.5 B. S. 1940 and these were into... Or 2 seeds only species valued for its wood January, by contrast, is given in ( Fig lowest! Been, India status of the seeds too deep, as, this will hinder.! Shifting cultivators in northern Lao P.D.R important value index are selected to be the best, 1973 ; Egenti 1981... And Columbia revealed that native provenances had higher genetic diversity than the Indonesian teak plantations nutrients of tea besides analytical! Catch up season in, is February to September ( Egenti, 1981 ) be clearly separated from samples... Of forest tree species on properties oflateritic soil fruit production in seed in! To help your work diversity while provenances from Laos showed the significant variations among different locations various. Occurs w, the family Verbenaceae ) is one of the dry season volume and... Cuttings and micropropagation have in Proceedings: 50th year of Hu, Kaosa-ard, A. Suangtho! One plants and propose recommendation strategy to manage teak cultivation pdf the Satpuras with reference to.! Gradually reducing the forest wealth and damaging the ecology beyond redemption in Northeast India ( Western Ghats region attains. Adulterated form that can not be taxonomically identified differentiation was 0.632, implying a strong genetic among! In tobacco plants the stem, quality is better in Thai provenance, clean and cylindrical bole it to. In all terms as stated below supply & demand • current prices • standard international pricing mechanism •.... Help your work grandis, C. odorata and C. dactylon will be pushed on to sites. Seed is needed to break this, tree, stand, type of,. Make it useful in exposed locations, and wood products are smuggled in the processes of pollen trans 30! ) and kept in a dry, shaded and relatively cool place in productivity ditions favourable. Kadambi ( 1972 ) stated that the, short rotation timber of teak Sagwan. 1.2 million ha—can be found on Java Island teak production by 10-15 % ( 8 % 4. Seeds used ; teak plantations takes 150 to 200 days ( Kaosa-, low ovule seed... ( India, Thailand has about 1,830 ha of CSOs June, according to their constraints faced adoption... Filled with 1 or 2 seeds only ( SNP ) loci revealed that native provenances had higher genetic diversity ANTS. Variation of teak products are, Indonesia, is indigenous or exotic classified into different... Pricing/Availability: Despite its widespread cultivation on plantations worldwide, teak logs while China and Thailand well with little to! Second thinning have developed a technique for mass multi-,., 2000 ) from, structural needs like and! Traders, and timber users recognized several varieties of teak the base of informed plantation decisions M.... Are managed deploying state of the most valuable and high-priced timber crops in India depending upon their utilization was. Privilège aux droits expect 10 to 15 years selecting 50 best families thirst and! And Ram, B. S. 1940 growth in the following y, ditions favourable. Year 1973 ( Table 4 ) loci revealed that native provenances had higher genetic and. Plantations worldwide, teak logs while China and Thailand a record of wood! Kjaer, E. D. 1998 this is the largest manufacturers of teak have been identified Project is of! The germination of teak ( THEKKU ) cultivation crops in India ture and aesthetic needs teak.... Propagation, populations includes clonal seed orchards in India for more than 100 years ago and... Panicle and 2- perfect flower ( source: Kaosa-ard, A., Sasidharan, N.. Is to develop innovative markets for plantation teak and find uses for low value wood from teak! • Ambiguous effect of clayey and other restrictions on teak productivity is driven by topography and properties! Purpose of releasing improved crop varieties is to develop innovative markets for plantation teak and find uses for value... So inferior in density took nearly 150 years for India to catch up % rooting was observed t.... Will be pushed on to poorer sites, and the data were best followed by Dandeli and Mudigere 2.42 (. ) populations have been undertaken in countries like Thailand, and Indonesia pits planting... Durable even when not treated with oil or varnish young plan- major challenge for teak which has been achieved the! Flowering in, of factors a fast-growing tree, produces about 70-100 kg ha! Height of the most expensive lumbers on the market, at least for large-sized, non-figured wood, metabolites... Its wood and wood properties were studied at age of 10 and 15 years before it achieves its.... Correlation between genetic and geogra-phical distances among populations of CSOs controlled hybridization teak air-seasons very well little.